Patello-femoral Pain Syndrome

Patello-femoral pain syndrome is a type of pain experienced at the front of an individual’s kneecap. It is caused by the muscles in the thigh pushing the knee cap from its normal groove on the thigh bone. When this happens the knee cap rubs against cartilage, resulting in pain.

How to tell if you have patella-femoral pain syndrome

You experience:

  • Pain in the area around the outside of the knee
  • Pain after sitting for long periods
  • Tight quadriceps, calf and hamstrings
  • A clicking of the knee on bending

Hamstring Strain

A group of three muscles situated from behind the knee to the pelvis, the hamstring muscles allow the knee to bend. Over-stretching can damage them as can vigorous sport or intense gym work. Not stretching prior or after exercise can cause them to become shortened.

How to tell if you have hamstring strain

You experience:

  • A different walk
  • Stretching causes pain and the area feels tender
  • That area (where it hurts) feels weak and as if it’s about to collapse

Medial Meniscus Injury

A crescent shape located between the shin bone and the thigh bone, the medial meniscus acts as a shock absorber and allows the bones to fit together well. It tends to get injured when there has been a sudden impact to the knee caused by twisting or it can gradually be damaged over time through wear and tear. An orthopaedic test (McMurrays and Apleys) can be done to determine if this is the cause of pain and swelling.

How to tell if you have a medial meniscus injury

You experience:

  • Pain and the shin swells up with a couple of days of impact
  • It’s difficult to put any weight on the leg
  • The knee locks

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

Running from the back of the thigh bone and down the shin bone, the anterior cruciate is usually torn as a result of the knee twisting when the foot lands. Sometimes an untoward tackle can also cause the injury.

How to tell if you have symptoms of an anterior cruciate ligament tear

You experience:

  • Difficulty straightening the knee
  • A swollen knee
  • Pain in the knee area

Medial Collateral Ligament Tear

Running along the inside of the knee, the medial collateral ligament joins the thigh and shin bones together. It tends to get torn when a force is pressed against the knee, creating a gap. The tear can be to different degrees ie from grade 1 to 3.

How to tell if your medial collateral ligament is torn

You experience:

  • Swelling at the knee and it feels tender
  • An unstable knee